CICLOPS: Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for OPerationS

Enceladus

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Ice geysers on Enceladus
"I was inspired to paint this after imagining what an earth analog for the ice geysers on Enceladus would be. I started by looking at ice geysers associated with geothermal activity and quickly realized that the low gravity and lack of atmosphere on Saturn's moon would drastically change how these would develop over time. I visualized a kind of a ice geyser similar to the "Black Smokers" that can be found at the bottom of earths ocean, where ice builds up over time as it freezes while being ejected from the subsurface ocean.

I took care to get Saturn correctly sized in the distance. From the surface of Enceladus Saturn would appear as 23 degrees across and the rings would extend out about 70 degrees. I did however use some artistic license with the ring inclination, as I wanted to show a bit more detail than the 0.019 would allow. In addition I adjusted the lighting a bit brighter as in reality it would be about 90 times darker in broad daylight there than on Earth.

For the floor of the "Tiger Stripe" I envisioned a very new surface with a few boulders and lots of snow. Carolyn Porco suggested that there would be boulders on the canyon floors, but roughly 90% of the erupted stuff returns to the surface as "snow". The total predicted volume of material in the jets is approximately 50 kilograms (110 lbs) per second, over time this could cause quite an accumulation on the surface. I also included a faint E and a backlit G ring around Saturn. The Ice walls are purely hypothetical and certainly motivated by an aesthetic point of view."


Simon Kregar    © 2014
Artist's Website


Tiger Stripes: The Icy Jets of Enceladus
"From the south pole of the frozen surface of Enceladus, enormous, effervescent jets of icy brine spew volumes of vapor and ice particles at high speeds. Some of the material is jettisoned into space where it is snared by Saturn's gravity, wherein Saturn's hazy E ring is created. The organic-rich compounds that make up this salty spray marks Enceladus as a potential habitable zone candidate.

Scientists theorize the jets originate deep below the moon's thick ice cap in a warm subsurface ocean and find their pressurized escape from vents along the "Tiger Stripe" trenches, nicknamed as such due to their distinct striping across the moons ever-changing southern terrain.

I've been held spellbound by Enceladus since first viewing Cassini's stunning images of it's sunlit jets and desolate landscapes. With considerate input by Dr. Carolyn Porco, I was able to better understand how to render the exciting dynamics taking place on Saturn's tiny companion."


Lucy West    © 2013
Artist's Website
 
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Geysers of Enceladus
"The geysers of Enceladus are seen here up close. They are believed to be caused by Saturn's gravitational pull and the tidal flexure of Enceladus that results from it. This is enough to melt water inside Enceladus. Pressure in the liquid water chambers ejects fine water droplets to form the geysers found in the southern hemisphere, in an area known as "The South Polar Terrain." A small fraction of the ejected ice crystals is captured by Saturn's gravity and forms its E ring.

Enceladus is one of only two moons in the solar system where geysers have directly been detected.

From the surface of Enceladus, Saturn appears more than 50 times larger on the sky than our full moon does from Earth. In this illustration, along with some moons, the rings are visible as a line cutting through the center of Saturn."


Fahad Sulehria (www.novacelestia.com) and Brian Christensen (currentsofspace.blogspot.com/)   © 2011
Artist's Website


Sunset on Enceladus
"Inspired by the recent images of the plumes on the terminator of Enceladus"

Digital


Ron Miller   © 2009
Artist's Website
 
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Observing the Fountains
"Created specially for Carolyn Porco, with her generous advice"

Digital


Ron Miller   © 2009
Artist's Website


Exploring Enceladus
"I do these pictures of Enceladus simply because the little moon fascinates me. I might mention (while throwing modesty to the winds) that I included an illustration of a cryogeyser on Enceladus in my book "Saturn" (Lerner Publishing Co.), which was published in 2003."

Digital


Ron Miller   © 2009
Artist's Website
 
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The Breath of Enceladus
"The image shows a viewpoint from within one of the tiger stripe fractures just as Enceladus is coming out of Saturn eclipse. Sunlight reddened by its passage through Saturn's atmosphere illuminates a fractured, glittering ice crystal-covered landscape, revealing two ghostly, active plumes -- the 'breath' of Enceladus."


Garry L. Harwood   © 2008
Artist's Website


Enceladus
"Enceladus, one of Saturn's many icy moons, is now known to possess underground reservoirs of liquid water which sometimes erupt to the surface in the form of great jets or geysers. These keep the moon's surface sparkling white, and even add material to Saturn's rings."


Joe Bergeron   © 2006
Artist's Website
 
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Geysers of Enceladus
"Astronomical art, on a human scale, must often rely on images and non-visual data obtained at great distances. Enceladus is no exception. While we have seen spectacular detail in Cassini's close encounters, the view experienced from the surface must involve an educated leap of faith.

The painting uses the average human field of view, which is a bit less than 40 degrees. I began this digital painting by combining seven grayscale images from Cassini of Saturn itself. I then drew a topographic map of a section of the Tiger Stripes, relying as heavily as possible on Cassini images, but going beyond them for the kind of resolution I wanted in my landscape."


Michael Carroll   © 2006
Artist's Website


Saturn's Enceladus
"Here we are peering across the boulder-strewn surface of Saturn�s moon Enceladus."


John E. Kaufmann   © 2006
Artist's Website
 
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A Water Crystal Geyser on Enceladus
"We all know what water geysers look like on Earth, but what would one look like in world where there is no atmosphere to speak of, surface temperature is -330� F, and the escape velocity is only 870 km/hr? I imagined a geyser that was more a diaphanous aurora of ice crystals than a spray of water. In my rendering, some of the crystals have repeatedly combined to form snow heavy enough to fall back to the surface, while smaller crystals head off into space. Irregular sprays, varying velocities, and perhaps even electrostatic forces, contribute to the geyser�s chaotic appearance. Saturn itself appears low on the horizon due to the proximity to Enceladus' south pole, and the small white dot immediately to Saturn's left is the icy moon Mimas."


Walter Myers   © 2006
Artist's Website


Saturn From Enceladus
"Saturn as seen from the freezing surface of Enceladus. Here, plumes of gas and ice particles burst from beneath the ground."


David-Kingsley Kendel   © 2007
 
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Eruption on Enceladus: South Polar Geyser
"If you are standing at the south pole of Enceladus, which is in the ring plane, the rings have to appear not only edge on, but parallel to the horizon. The angular width of this image is 50 degrees, about what comes from a standard lens on a camera. The venting would appear variable; the gas component is giving some bluish scattering, although there are some whiter ice particles and warmer toned organic dust in the plume.

For the surface, I wanted to show a scene near one of the fractures, and I visualized that in at least some places along fractures we might see shattered ice squeeze-ups, where faulting had jostled �plates� of ice against each other. I visualized some blue color showing up as sunlight passed through some of the cleaner ice slabs, as seen in glacial ice on Earth. I also indicated some coloration of the icy gravel by organics in the foreground and along the fracture at right, but the clean white ice of Enceladus, with some of the highest albedos in the solar system, can be seen in the distance."


Bill Hartmann   © 2006
Artist's Website


Saturn from the Surface of Enceladus
"While the surface of Enceladus is reported to be as brilliant as snow in full sun, it would probably appear leaden about an hour before sunrise with a crescent Saturn as the only source of illumination. Subtending an angle of 29� in Enceladus' sky (the same width as 58 Earth moons lined up side-by-side in Earth's sky) Saturn would be a stunning panorama.

This image also illustrates a phenomenon only recently discovered by NASA's Cassini probe: sunlight reflecting off of Saturn's rings casts a faint glow onto the cloud tops of Saturn's night side. The illumination is about the same as three of Earth's full moon combined."


Walter Myers   © 2006
Artist's Website
 
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